The nitric oxide pathway plays a pivotal, yet diverse, role in human physiology, including modulation ofvascular tone, neural transmission and inflammation. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator that has emerged rapidly as an important therapeutic agent. It finds its best applications in pediatrics; the use of iNO in term neonates with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, in the assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity and in the treatment of postoperative pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease is well recognized and accepted.

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