Nitric oxide (NO) has been well established as a molecule necessary for memory consolidation. Interestingly, the majority of research has focused on only a single mechanism through which NO acts, namely the up-regulation of guanylate cyclase (GC). However, since NO and NO-derived reactive nitrogen species are capable of interacting with a broad array of enzymes, ion channels and receptors, a singular focus on GC appears short-sighted. Although NO inhibits the action of a number of molecules there are four, in addition to GC, which are up-regulated by the direct presence of NO, or NO-derived radicals, and implicated in memory processing.

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